All black men, on the other hand, were called by their first names or were referred to as "Boy," "Uncle,"
and "Old Man"–regardless of their age. If the white person did not personally know a black person, the
term "nigger" or "nigger-fellow," might be used. In legal cases and the press, blacks were often
referred to by the word "Negro" with a first name attached, such as "Negro Sam." At other times, the
term "Jack," or some common name, was universally used in addressing black men not known to the
white speaker. On the Pullman Sleeping cars on trains, for example, all the black porters answered to
the name of "boy" or simply "George" (after the first name of George Pullman, who owned and built the
Pullman Sleeping Cars).
Whites much preferred to give blacks honorary titles, such as Doctor, or Professor, or Reverend, in
order to avoid calling them Mister. While the term "nigger" was universally used, some whites were
uncomfortable with it because they knew it was offensive to most blacks. As a substitute, the word
"niggra" often appeared in polite society.